Cardiac Sphincter

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The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract that functions as a vital digestive organ . The stomach is present in humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates (e.g., echinoderms , insects , and molluscs ). In animals which chew their food, the stomach is considered the second phase of digestion , following the

The esophagus may be affected by gastric reflux , cancer , prominent dilated blood vessels called varices that can bleed heavily, tears , constrictions, and disorders of motility. Diseases may cause difficulty swallowing ( dysphagia ), painful swallowing ( odynophagia ), chest pain , or cause no symptoms at all. Clinical investigations include X-rays when swallowing barium , endoscopy , and CT scans . Surgically, the esophagus is very difficult to access. [1]

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The cardiac sphincter , also referred to as the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), is a valve found in the esophagus , the tube responsible for transporting foods and liquids to the stomach from the mouth. This particular valve is located just between the bottom of the esophagus and the stomach. A sphincter is a specialized type of muscle with an opening that relaxes and contracts, allowing this muscular valve to open and close as necessary. When this valve does not function properly, a variety of medical issues, including acid reflux or GERD , may occur.